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INTRODUCING PSYCHOLOGY'S HISTORY psychologists within the APA into a History of Psychology Group, the eventual outcome being the. During its relatively short history as a distinct discipline, psychology was accompanied The notion that I regard authors who trace the history of psychology to. The definition of psychology has changed as the fo- cus of psychology has changed. At various times in history, psychology has been defined as the study of .
We naturally return to Charcot, as his influence in French psychology is among the greatest, in order to introduce some of his pupils, who shaped the field of psychology in France and became pioneers of psychology as a science throughout the world.
Ideas imported into the French psychology As we have seen thus far, many of the psychological traditions in France had ties to other countries and their development of a study of human psychology. The philosophical traditions that brought forth the principles and ideas of the Enlightenment stem from Kant in Germany, however, his influences derive from Descartes, Locke, and Hume, who were of French and British origins, and they in turn worked from a foundation in ancient Greek philosophy.
Therefore we can either root everything back to the ancient Greeks, or formulate a more inclusive view that accepts the flow of ideas through time and civilizations in the context that influenced these ideas to migrate and change. As such, the Enlightenment that precipitated a revolution in France, did not have the same effect in other European nations, and this can be related to the context in which such ideas are placed. Similarly, the ideas that conceptualized the development of psychology as a discipline had unique effects in the respective nations and cultures that adopted and further developed these ideas.
This, along with some literature on psychology, instigated the first steps toward building a scientific psychology as a discipline. In France, Ribot first translated the works of Wundt, along with other literature on psychology in order to initiate the beginnings of a scientific psychology in France.
He was also first to open an experimental laboratory in France only ten years after Wundt. Janet also influenced French psychology toward psychopathology and treatment of mental disorders, as opposed to the German laboratories working on introspection Reuchlin, Likewise, the work of Le Bon pushed for a social psychology in France, incited by his study of crowds, which drew upon the notions of the unconscious mind and its effect on behaviour Nye, The concept of an unconscious mind was floating around Europe, most strongly advocated and defined by Freud and Jung, which had a powerful effect on French psychology.
However, the idea of French psychoanalysis is difficult to say whether it was imported from Freud in Austria or whether it had its own separate French origin with Janet.
Nevertheless, the French psychoanalytic movement seems to have been swayed more so by the works of Janet in its conception, and remained a lasting discipline in the French culture. The ideas that penetrated into the French culture and emerging discipline of psychology had come under certain French revisions due to the context they were now placed in, and the intention for their use. Psychology was a fascinating and wide spread topic in the 19th century, and in France it grew quickly.
Reflexivity in French psychology As we consider the origin of psychology in France we must also take some time to look more closely at the French culture and mind that shaped the French psychology.
We have seen how the early pioneers of psychology in France were influenced by philosophical movements, but now we must consider how the French psychology as a whole was affected by the period and events that transpired while the discipline of psychology was evolving. Climactic events in history as said to shape nations and forge new political and social orders, and here we speak of wars, uprisings, and sadly even genocides.
Such powerful happenings can have traumatic effects on the people undergoing these radical changes. Simultaneously, the world around them appeared to be moving toward equality and inalienable rights with the ideas flourishing from the Enlightenment movement, which led to the impetus for a need for change that sparked the uprisings of the French revolution French Revolution, n.
His movement toward the ethical treatment of the insane and the reformation of asylums into hospitals for psychiatric care were ideas distinctly opposed to the old Monarchical regime and especially toward the Roman Catholic Church, which dominated France during his time. Pinel adopted the ethos of liberty, equality, and ethics that marked the cause of the French revolution, and the shift in the psychology of the French people.
He stands as an example of the mentality that contested an environment and social order, toward the implementation of a new perspective of humanity; one that valued life equally and saw the benefits of individual liberties.
However, the philosophy of the Enlightenment may have also died with the French revolution as the age of Romanticism was dawning. The French psychology was once again shifting, this time even more toward liberty, freedom, and individuality, through the expression of creativity, aesthetics, and a break from previous traditions.
Romanticism greatly impacted politics, historiography, and the natural sciences, with a defiance against the scientific rationalization of nature, and the promotion of living life through emotional experiences by immersing oneself in the aesthetics Romanticism, n. The reflexive psychology of the French people in the early 19th century was moulded by great suffering, upheaval, and misery, but also by hope and the actualization of individual freedoms, a new vision of the beauty of existence, and the romanticization of the good and the bad.
Pinel pioneered a movement in psychology based on these romantic feelings, and a revolt against the aristocratic and political norms of the Enlightenment, and many followed in his footsteps Fishbein, He was a philosopher, historian of ideas, and social theorist, but most remarkably he represents the culmination of the ideas that forged the French psychology, both as a practice and as a reflexive process of the way people thought due to their cultural climate.
Foucault was inspired by Kant and the Enlightenment, and the Romanticist period that impressed liberal ideals into the French culture, which Foucault was also a strong advocate of. Foucault theorized about power, knowledge, history, and inspired qualitative research with his discourse analysis, which ushered in postmodernism as a new perspective on knowledge with reference to its meaning, assumptions, context, and relation to other ideas in a broader web of knowledge Sedgwick, His ideas, though largely philosophical have flowed from a particular French context, which eloquently combined the psychological with the philosophical, and sustained the liberal spirit that challenges power and oppression in the social atmosphere through questioning our practices.
Conclusion Therefore, the discipline of psychology that dawned in France at the beginning of the 19th century was a product of the French psyche and its traumas, as well as its endurance and hope toward a humanitarian, social, and healing psychology. We see the effects of the context that psychology was raised in in France through the adaptation of psychoanalysis toward the healing of hysteria and neuroses by Charcot, Janet, Lacan, and Dolto, the advocacy for a social psychology by Le Bon, the desire to recognize mental disorders and intelligence by Binet, and the pioneers who made this possible like Pinel and Ribot.
Peirce was forced out of his position by scandal and Hall was awarded the only professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins. In Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology , which published work primarily emanating from his own laboratory. In Hall left his Johns Hopkins professorship for the presidency of the newly founded Clark University , where he remained for the rest of his career.
However, it was Princeton University 's Eno Hall, built in , that became the first university building in the United States to be devoted entirely to experimental psychology when it became the home of the university's Department of Psychology.
It laid many of the foundations for the sorts of questions that American psychologists would focus on for years to come. The book's chapters on consciousness, emotion, and habit were particularly agenda-setting. One of those who felt the impact of James' Principles was John Dewey , then professor of philosophy at the University of Michigan.
With his junior colleagues, James Hayden Tufts who founded the psychology laboratory at Michigan and George Herbert Mead , and his student James Rowland Angell , this group began to reformulate psychology, focusing more strongly on the social environment and on the activity of mind and behavior than the psychophysics-inspired physiological psychology of Wundt and his followers had heretofore. Tufts left Michigan for another junior position at the newly founded University of Chicago in A year later, the senior philosopher at Chicago, Charles Strong , resigned, and Tufts recommended to Chicago president William Rainey Harper that Dewey be offered the position.
After initial reluctance, Dewey was hired in Dewey soon filled out the department with his Michigan companions Mead and Angell. These four formed the core of the Chicago School of psychology.
In , G. Stanley Hall invited some psychologists and philosophers to a meeting at Clark with the purpose of founding a new American Psychological Association APA.
Almost immediately tension arose between the experimentally and philosophically inclined members of the APA.
Edward Bradford Titchener and Lightner Witmer launched an attempt to either establish a separate "Section" for philosophical presentations, or to eject the philosophers altogether. After nearly a decade of debate, a Western Philosophical Association was founded and held its first meeting in at the University of Nebraska.
The following year , an American Philosophical Association held its first meeting at Columbia University. In , a number of psychologists, unhappy with the parochial editorial policies of the American Journal of Psychology approached Hall about appointing an editorial board and opening the journal out to more psychologists not within Hall's immediate circle.
Hall refused, so James McKeen Cattell then of Columbia and James Mark Baldwin then of Princeton co-founded a new journal, Psychological Review , which rapidly grew to become a major outlet for American psychological researchers. Moore Chicago published a series of experiments in Psychological Review appearing to show that Baldwin was the more correct of the two.
However, they interpreted their findings in light of John Dewey 's new approach to psychology, which rejected the traditional stimulus-response understanding of the reflex arc in favor of a "circular" account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response" depends on how one views the situation.
Titchener responded in Philosophical Review , by distinguishing his austere "structural" approach to psychology from what he termed the Chicago group's more applied "functional" approach, and thus began the first major theoretical rift in American psychology between Structuralism and Functionalism. Thorndike , and Robert S.
Woodworth , was often regarded as a second after Chicago "school" of American Functionalism see, e. Dewey was elected president of the APA in , while Titchener dropped his membership in the association. In , Titchener formed his own group, eventually known as the Society of Experimental Psychologists.
Jastrow promoted the functionalist approach in his APA presidential address of , and Angell adopted Titchener's label explicitly in his influential textbook of and his APA presidential address of In reality, Structuralism was, more or less, confined to Titchener and his students.
Functionalism, broadly speaking, with its more practical emphasis on action and application, better suited the American cultural "style" and, perhaps more important, was more appealing to pragmatic university trustees and private funding agencies. These were traditional metaphysical schools, opposed to regarding psychology as a natural science. From the forward, a steadily increasing interest in positivist , materialist , evolutionary , and deterministic approaches to psychology developed, influenced by, among others, the work of Hyppolyte Taine — e.
In , Ribot founded Revue Philosophique the same year as Mind was founded in Britain , which for the next generation would be virtually the only French outlet for the "new" psychology Plas, Although not a working experimentalist himself, Ribot's many books were to have profound influence on the next generation of psychologists.
In the s, Ribot's interests turned to psychopathology, writing books on disorders of memory , will , and personality , and where he attempted to bring to these topics the insights of general psychology. Although in he lost a Sorbonne professorship in the History of Psychological Doctrines to traditionalist Jules Soury — , from to he taught experimental psychology at the Sorbonne. France's primary psychological strength lay in the field of psychopathology.
Two of his students, Alfred Binet — and Pierre Janet — , adopted and expanded this practice in their own work. In , Binet and his colleague Henri Beaunis — co-founded, at the Sorbonne , the first experimental psychology laboratory in France. In the first years of the 20th century, Binet was requested by the French government to develop a method for the newly founded universal public education system to identify students who would require extra assistance to master the standardized curriculum.
Although the test was used to effect in France, it would find its greatest success and controversy in the United States, where it was translated into English by Henry H. Goddard — , the director of the Training School for the Feebleminded in Vineland, New Jersey, and his assistant, Elizabeth Kite a translation of the edition appeared in the Vineland Bulletin in , but much better known was Kite's translation of the edition, which appeared in book form. The translated test was used by Goddard to advance his eugenics agenda with respect to those he deemed congenitally feeble-minded, especially immigrants from non-Western European countries.
Binet's test was revised by Stanford professor Lewis M. There people were tested on a wide variety of physical e. In Galton was visited by James McKeen Cattell who would later adapt Galton's techniques in developing his own mental testing research program in the United States. Galton was not primarily a psychologist, however. The data he accumulated in the anthropometric laboratory primarily went toward supporting his case for eugenics.
To help interpret the mounds of data he accumulated, Galton developed a number of important statistical techniques, including the precursors to the scatterplot and the product-moment correlation coefficient later perfected by Karl Pearson , — Soon after, Charles Spearman — developed the correlation-based statistical procedure of factor analysis in the process of building a case for his two-factor theory of intelligence, published in Spearman believed that people have an inborn level of general intelligence or g which can be crystallized into a specific skill in any of a number of narrow content area s , or specific intelligence.
Laboratory psychology of the kind practiced in Germany and the United States was slow in coming to Britain. A laboratory was established through the assistance of the physiology department in and a lectureship in psychology was established which first went to W. Rivers — Soon Rivers was joined by C. Myers — and William McDougall — This group showed as much interest in anthropology as psychology, going with Alfred Cort Haddon — on the famed Torres Straits expedition of In the Psychological Society was established which renamed itself the British Psychological Society in , and in Ward and Rivers co-founded the British Journal of Psychology.
Insofar as psychology was regarded as the science of the soul and institutionally part of philosophy courses in theology schools, psychology was present in Russia from the second half of the 18th century. By contrast, if by psychology we mean a separate discipline, with university chairs and people employed as psychologists, then it appeared only after the October Revolution. All the same, by the end of the 19th century, many different kinds of activities called psychology had spread in philosophy, natural science, literature, medicine, education, legal practice, and even military science.
Psychology was as much a cultural resource as it was a defined area of scholarship . His question was rhetorical, for he was already convinced that physiology was the scientific basis on which to build psychology. Although it was the history and philology departments that traditionally taught courses in psychology, it was the medical schools that first introduced psychological laboratories and courses on experimental psychology. As early as the s and s, I. Petersburg and Sergey Korsakov , a psychiatrist at Moscow university, began to download psychometric apparatus.
In , Tokarskii set up a psychological laboratory in the psychiatric clinic of Moscow university with the support of its head, Korsakov, to teach future psychiatrists about what he promoted as new and necessary techniques.
In , Georgy Chelpanov announced a 3-year course in psychology based on laboratory work and a well-structured teaching seminar. In the following years, Chelpanov traveled in Europe and the United States to see existing institutes; the result was a luxurious four-story building for the Psychological Institute of Moscow with well-equipped laboratories, opening formally on March 23, Collectively, they developed a new approach to psychological experimentation that flew in the face of many of Wundt's restrictions.
Wundt had drawn a distinction between the old philosophical style of self-observation Selbstbeobachtung in which one introspected for extended durations on higher thought processes, and inner perception innere Wahrnehmung in which one could be immediately aware of a momentary sensation, feeling, or image Vorstellung. Only the latter was a proper subject for experimentation. He thus, paradoxically, used a method of which Wundt did not approve in order to affirm Wundt's view of the situation.
The imageless thought debate is often said to have been instrumental in undermining the legitimacy of all introspective methods in experimental psychology and, ultimately, in bringing about the behaviorist revolution in American psychology.
It was not without its own delayed legacy, however. Herbert A. Instead, they argued that the psychological "whole" has priority and that the "parts" are defined by the structure of the whole, rather than vice versa. Thus, the school was named Gestalt , a German term meaning approximately "form" or "configuration.
Wertheimer had been a student of Austrian philosopher, Christian von Ehrenfels — , who claimed that in addition to the sensory elements of a perceived object, there is an extra element which, though in some sense derived from the organization of the standard sensory elements, is also to be regarded as being an element in its own right. Wertheimer took the more radical line that "what is given me by the melody does not arise In other words, one hears the melody first and only then may perceptually divide it up into notes.
Only after this primary apprehension might one notice that it is made up of lines or dots or stars. Gestalt-Theorie was officially initiated in in an article by Wertheimer on the phi-phenomenon; a perceptual illusion in which two stationary but alternately flashing lights appear to be a single light moving from one location to another.
Contrary to popular opinion, his primary target was not behaviorism, as it was not yet a force in psychology. The aim of his criticism was, rather, the atomistic psychologies of Hermann von Helmholtz — , Wilhelm Wundt — , and other European psychologists of the time. Koffka was also a student of Stumpf's, having studied movement phenomena and psychological aspects of rhythm.
The terms "structure" and "organization" were focal for the Gestalt psychologists. Stimuli were said to have a certain structure, to be organized in a certain way, and that it is to this structural organization, rather than to individual sensory elements, that the organism responds. When an animal is conditioned, it does not simply respond to the absolute properties of a stimulus, but to its properties relative to its surroundings.
In Koffka published a Gestalt-oriented text on developmental psychology, Growth of the Mind. With the help of American psychologist Robert Ogden , Koffka introduced the Gestalt point of view to an American audience in by way of a paper in Psychological Bulletin.
It contains criticisms of then-current explanations of a number of problems of perception, and the alternatives offered by the Gestalt school. Koffka moved to the United States in , eventually settling at Smith College in In Koffka published his Principles of Gestalt Psychology. This textbook laid out the Gestalt vision of the scientific enterprise as a whole.
Science, he said, is not the simple accumulation of facts.
What makes research scientific is the incorporation of facts into a theoretical structure. The goal of the Gestalt ists was to integrate the facts of inanimate nature, life, and mind into a single scientific structure. This meant that science would have to swallow not only what Koffka called the quantitative facts of physical science but the facts of two other "scientific categories": Without incorporating the meaning of experience and behavior, Koffka believed that science would doom itself to trivialities in its investigation of human beings.
Having survived the onslaught of the Nazis up to the mids,  all the core members of the Gestalt movement were forced out of Germany to the United States by Koffka died in and Wertheimer in As a result of the conjunction of a number of events in the early 20th century, behaviorism gradually emerged as the dominant school in American psychology.
First among these was the increasing skepticism with which many viewed the concept of consciousness: William James ' Journal of Philosophy Second was the gradual rise of a rigorous animal psychology.
In addition to Edward Lee Thorndike 's work with cats in puzzle boxes in , the start of research in which rats learn to navigate mazes was begun by Willard Small , in American Journal of Psychology. Robert M. Yerkes 's Journal of Philosophy Another important rat study was published by Henry H. Donaldson , J. A third factor was the rise of Watson to a position of significant power within the psychological community.
In addition to heading the Johns Hopkins department, Baldwin was the editor of the influential journals, Psychological Review and Psychological Bulletin. Only months after Watson's arrival, Baldwin was forced to resign his professorship due to scandal. Watson was suddenly made head of the department and editor of Baldwin's journals. He resolved to use these powerful tools to revolutionize psychology in the image of his own research. In he published in Psychological Review the article that is often called the "manifesto" of the behaviorist movement, "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It.
The following year, , his first textbook, Behavior went to press. Although behaviorism took some time to be accepted as a comprehensive approach see Samelson, , in no small part because of the intervention of World War I , by the s Watson's revolution was well underway. The central tenet of early behaviorism was that psychology should be a science of behavior, not of the mind, and rejected internal mental states such as beliefs, desires, or goals. Watson himself, however, was forced out of Johns Hopkins by scandal in Although he continued to publish during the s, he eventually moved on to a career in advertising see Coon, Among the behaviorists who continued on, there were a number of disagreements about the best way to proceed.
Neo-behaviorists such as Edward C. Tolman , Edwin Guthrie , Clark L. Hull , and B. Skinner debated issues such as 1 whether to reformulate the traditional psychological vocabulary in behavioral terms or discard it in favor of a wholly new scheme, 2 whether learning takes place all at once or gradually, 3 whether biological drives should be included in the new science in order to provide a "motivation" for behavior, and 4 to what degree any theoretical framework is required over and above the measured effects of reinforcement and punishment on learning.
By the late s, Skinner's formulation had become dominant, and it remains a part of the modern discipline under the rubric of Behavior Analysis. Its application Applied Behavior Analysis has become one of the most useful fields of psychology. Behaviorism was the ascendant experimental model for research in psychology for much of the 20th century, largely due to the creation and successful application not least of which in advertising of conditioning theories as scientific models of human behaviour.
In , Jean Piaget — turned away from his early training in natural history and began post-doctoral work in psychoanalysis in Zurich. In , he moved to Paris to work at the Binet-Simon Lab. However, Binet had died in and Simon lived and worked in Rouen. The job in Paris was relatively simple: Yet without direct supervision, he soon found a remedy to this boring work: Applying his early training in psychoanalytic interviewing, Piaget began to intervene directly with the children: It was from this that the ideas formalized in his later stage theory first emerged.
They formed what is now known as the Genevan School. In , the International Center for Genetic Epistemology was founded: In , Piaget received the "distinguished scientific contributions" award from the American Psychological Association. Noam Chomsky 's review of Skinner's book Verbal Behavior that aimed to explain language acquisition in a behaviorist framework is considered one of the major theoretical challenges to the type of radical as in 'root' behaviorism that Skinner taught.
Chomsky claimed that language could not be learned solely from the sort of operant conditioning that Skinner postulated. Chomsky's argument was that people could produce an infinite variety of sentences unique in structure and meaning and that these could not possibly be generated solely through experience of natural language.
The issue is not whether mental activities exist; it is whether they can be shown to be the causes of behavior. Similarly, work by Albert Bandura showed that children could learn by social observation , without any change in overt behaviour, and so must according to him be accounted for by internal representations.
The rise of computer technology also promoted the metaphor of mental function as information processing.
This, combined with a scientific approach to studying the mind, as well as a belief in internal mental states, led to the rise of cognitivism as the dominant model of the mind. Links between brain and nervous system function were also becoming common, partly due to the experimental work of people like Charles Sherrington and Donald Hebb , and partly due to studies of people with brain injury see cognitive neuropsychology.
With the development of technologies for accurately measuring brain function, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience have become some of the most active areas in contemporary psychology. With the increasing involvement of other disciplines such as philosophy , computer science , and neuroscience in the quest to understand the mind, the umbrella discipline of cognitive science has been created as a means of focusing such efforts in a constructive way.
In addition, there are a large number of "friendly journals" where historical material can often be found. Burman, J. Network Analysis of Journal Citation Reports, ". Sage Open. These are discussed in History of Psychology discipline.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the discipline, see History of Psychology discipline. For the journal, see History of Psychology journal. Basic types.
Applied psychology. Further information: Philosophy of mind. See also: Main article: Main articles: Cognitive Psychology , Cognitive Science , and Cognitive revolution.
History of behavioral neuroscience History of clinical psychology History of cognitive neuroscience History of cognitive science History of evolutionary psychology History of experimental psychology History of hypnosis History of mental disorders History of neurology History of neuropsychology History of neurophysiology History of psychiatry History of psychotherapy History of sociology History of science Applied psychology Basic science psychology Psychophysics Psychology of art Psychology of religion Kurt Danziger Timeline of psychology Archives of the History of American Psychology List of important publications in psychology.
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